Around 8 million live in Afghanistan's cities today, but that number is expected to double by 2030.Yet, like many other rapidly urbanising countries, it has no national urban policy, no housing policy, and local planning is weak.
Local authorities and their partners can get research done on issues in their area, with the costs met from the EU's ESPON programme. Bids need to be in by 9 March 2015.
ESPON is inviting bids for seven new applied research projects, including one on comparing the spatial planning systems across Europe.
The ESPON programme gets going again with a seminar in Luxembourg in December focusing on refugee migration.
A new bridge in Portland, Oregon carries pedestrians, cyclists, buses, trams and light rail metro - but no cars or trucks.